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I need help with a Biology question. All explanations and answers will be used to help me learn.

Week 8 Discussion

COLLAPSE

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“Hawaiian Bobtail Squid, Virus Reassortment, and Endophytes”

Many bacteria are helpful, rather than harmful, and some even form partnerships with other organisms. This week you will explore the power of bacteria and viruses. For your primary post, respond to one of the following three topics. Also, please reply to at least one fellow student on any topic.

Topic 1 : The Hawaiian Bobtail Squid and its bacterial endosymbiont. In a 4-minute video clip (1), Bonnie Bassler explains the relationship between the Hawaiian Bobtail squid and it’s endosymbiont, the bacterium Vibrio fisheri. Answer the following two questions about this arrangement:

  • (a) What are the main characteristics of the partnership between these two species?
  • (b) How does each species benefit?

Topic 2 [article]. Virus Reassortment and the Alaska Connection Read the article from MIT News (2) about tracking the spread of bird flu. Address the following:

  • (a) The article (2) describes genetic reassortment of influenza viruses. Explain how genetic reassortment works and what the significance of it is for humans and for domestic fowl.
  • (b) The article (2) explains that one way that influenza strains enters North America is through Alaska. Explain how that works and what the significance of it is for humans and for domestic fowl.

Topic 3 [article]: Endophytes that benefit plants. Read reference (3) or reference (4) or another article of your choosing about the relationship between plants and their endophytes. .

  • (a) Describe what an endophyte is and give a specific example.
  • (b) Provide an example of at least one beneficial effect of certain endophytes on their plant hosts.

References (in Strayer Writing Standards format).

  1. iBioEducation, 2013. Quorum sensing in bacteria – Bonnie Bassler, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LebqwdQSFHE
  2. 2. Anne Trafton, March 17, 2017. Tracking the spread of bird flu, http://news.mit.edu/2017/tracking-spread-bird-flu-alaska-north-america-0317
  3. 3. Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, December 18, 2015. Endophytic fungi in elm trees help protect them from Dutch elm disease, https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/12/151218085929.htm
  4. 4. Claire O’Connell, April 7, 2016. Plants get by with a little help from their microbial friends. https://www.irishtimes.com/news/science/plants-get-by-with-a-little-help-from-their-microbial-friends-1.2593676

AND RESPOND TO THIS POST:

Sylve

RE: Week 8 Discussion

COLLAPSE

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Good morning Professor and classmate

Endophytes that benefit plants

  1. Endophytes are living organisms that usually live within living plant cells (Hiruma et al., 2016). Their relationship with the plant usually varies from being pathogenic to symbiotic. Bacteria and fungi are what are referred to as endophytes. For instance, rhizobium bacteria is a good example of endosymbiotant in legumes as it fixes the nitrogen in the soil into proteins known as nitrates, which are used by the leguminous plants. Other examples include Rhodococcus rhodochrous and bradyrhizobium.
  2. Rhizobium bacteria are very beneficial to legumes as it fixes the nitrogen in the soil into proteins that the legumes use in making of their food. Another example is Rhodococcus rhodochrous that is used in horticulture and agriculture because it prevents the growth of pseudomnoascus destructants in the soil.

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