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I’m stuck on a Biology question and need an explanation.

Use the following paper which discusses the hypothesis to review the data (pictures attached) and write a discussion section and a results section continuing from the attached paper. I have attached the rubric as well for more clarification of what is required.

Once you have verified your calculations of average leaf area and stomatal density, identify trends in the data. Do they support or refute your hypothesis (restate your hypothesis)? If your hypothesis was supported, reiterate what is going on ecologically and evolutionarily to produce these results. If you hypothesis was refuted, provide an alternative explanation for what could be going on. Cite your references using APA format.

Discussion (2-3 pages) The flow of information resembles a triangle; it starts with whether or not your specific hypothesis was supported and ends with the general implications of your research. The discussion will mirror your introduction, but will now incorporate your findings to help the reader understand how our knowledge of the species, system, or habitat is improved.

Your first paragraph should address whether or not your hypothesis was supported. You may briefly restate some of the results, but avoid going into detail such that the discussion sections reads like your results section.

If your hypothesis was supported, you will expand upon that. You may reiterate the logic you presented in your introduction, but you should also discuss how your results compare to other studies on the same topic. If you performed several analyses, you will need to address all of them and also explain how they relate to one another.

If your hypothesis was refuted, do not go and change your hypothesis to match your results! Students at this level get very concerned that being wrong means failure, but in fact, that is the point of scientific inquiry. If the logic of your hypothesis is sound and your experimental results were appropriate, then you must accept the end result. You will spend the discussion comparing your results to other studies and proposing alternative hypotheses. To do this, you can use observations you may have made during the experiment and/or other papers that address similar questions.

You will end the discussion by returning to the reason your experiment is necessary. This is something you should have included in the introduction. You should have an answer; Did you expand upon previous work? Did you learn something new about the species, system, or habitat? Did you resolve the conflict?

Tie everything back to the big picture idea. Remember, to be important, scientific research does not have to necessarily benefit humans!

Results (suggested length ~1/2-1 pages w/o graphs) In this section you will describe what you found without interpretation of what the results mean. The written portion will be relatively short.

You may decide to use figures (tables or graphs) to communicate your results if they make it clearer for the reader. If you decide to use a figure, you should not repeat the information in the paragraph. Instead, you would state the general trend in the paragraph and reference the figure for more detail. For example, “Biodiversity in the chaparral increased with access to more water (Figure 1).” In this example, the figure would show the Shannon’s index for the chaparral plots and the amount of water in each.

Each figure should be numbered and include a detailed explanatory caption. The caption goes below graphs and above tables. Graphs and tables are numbered independently and according to their order of reference in the text.

All results should be analyzed. Never include the “raw data” you collected for each replication. If multiple individuals were sampled or multiple locations within a treatment, that is to improve the accuracy of the measurements to better estimate the entire population. No one cares about individuals per se, only the general trends or relationships.

I have posted two youtube videos that explain how to create a bar graph and a scatterplot in Excel or Google Sheets in the first resource page in this module. Bar graphs are used to compare averages among categories while scatterplots show the relationship between two variables.

Rubric for the discussion section

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